This is a combination of bibliographies compiled by Dr. Mark Q. Sutton of California State University, Bakersfield, and Albert Knight.

Barras, Judy (1984). Their Places Shall Know Them No More. Bakersfield, CA: Sierra Printers.
Lots of Kawaiisu stories and information on modern Kawaiisu people.
Bean and Blackburn (1976). Native California - A Theoretical Retrospective. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.
One of the best compilations of “recent” professional papers on the Natives of California. This collection has several excellent articles on native world-views, culture, agriculture and economics. Nothing specific on the Kawaiisu.
Blackburn, Thomas C. and Anderson, Kat (1993). Before the Wilderness - Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.
Hunters and gatherers do not merely wander about the landscape looking for something to eat, they (in varying degrees, depending upon the particular culture) actively manipulate and enhance their environment(s) and often believe that for the world to be healthy and whole that man and environment need to continually interact... This book is highly recommended for anyone who hopes to really understand the world-view and environmental conceptions of Native Californians.
Cawley, John. MS No. 386, on file at the Archaeological Research Facility, University of California, Berkeley.
MS Notes on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, Mostly in Kern County.
Cook, Sherbirne F. (1976). The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
The “pioneering study of the interaction of two civilizations.” Originally published in several parts from 1940-1943. Much on population statistics, much historic and ethnographic information; highly informative.
Des Lauriers, Matthew R. (1996). The ASA Collection from Witchstick Cave, Sand Canyon, Tehachapi, California.
Paper presented at the annual Kelso Conference on California Desert Prehistory, Red Rock Canyon State Park.
Heizer and Whipple (1951). The California Indians - A Source Book. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
1971 2nd edition revised and enlarged. 50 professional papers on various aspects of California Indian culture, languages, history, archeology. Nothing specific on the Kawaiisu. Excellent source for the non-expert.
Hinshaw, Jay, and Susan Rubin (1996). An Artifact Collection from the Nettle Spring Site Complex, Sand Canyon, Kern County, California. Kern County Archaeological Society Journal 7:3-14.
Hurtado, Albert L. (1988). Indian Survival on the California Frontier. Yale University Press.
One of the few books which provides particular information on the Native Americans of California, their status, life styles, reactions and role(s) during the period of the conquest of California. Highly recommended.
Knight, Albert (1993). Rock Art of the Mojave Desert: A Reevaluation. Kern County Archeological Society Occasional Papers #4.
Includes overview on local rock art style areas and rock art.
Kroeber, Alfred (1925). Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78. Reprinted by Dover Press (1976).
The standard reference work on ALL of the natives of California. Although the reader is advised to examine more recent works on the peoples discussed in this book, Kroeber's handbook remains a classic and is considered an essential part of the literature on the California Indians. The Kawaiisu and Tubatulabal are discussed on pages 601-610.
Kroeber, Theodora (1961). Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
The story of the last known “wild” Indian in North America. Ishi was a Yahi from the Mount Lassen area. His tragic story make absolutely fascinating reading for both young and old, for those with much knowledge and for the beginner. Highly recommended, especially for “beginners” and children.
McQueen, Christine M. (1995). A Kawaiisu Healing Cave.
Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Society for California Archaeology, Eureka.
Merrian, C. Hart (Compiled and edited by Robert F. Heizer) (1967). New-oo'-ah (1902) in Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes - III. Ethnological Notes on Central Californian Indian Tribes. University of California Archaeological Research Facility, No. 68, pp. 444-446. University of California, Berkeley.
3 pages of notes on Paiute Mountain Kawaiisu.
Osborne, Richard (1994). Preliminary Report on the Archaeological Collection From CA-KER-769, Sand Canyon, California.
Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Society for California Archaeology, Ventura.
Powers, Stephen (1877). Tribes of California. Contributions to North American Ethnology 3. Washington, DC: U.S.

Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. Reprinted by the University of California Press (1976).Powers was a journalist who began his studies of California Indians in 1871, and who was published in 1877. Although many inaccuracies are present, his was the first attempts to describe almost all of the native groups in California. For example, he introduced the term “Sho-sho-ni” in reference to a large group of people who spoke related languages (Shoshoni now refers to specific tribes in eastern Oregon and western Idaho, while the term “Uto-Aztecan” refers to the entire language family), and, although not discussing them, it was Powers who introduced the term “Kawaiisu” (the Yokut term referring to the natives of Tehachapi).Price, Clyde (1954). The Phillips Site. Archaeological Survey Association of Southern California Newsletter 2(2):9-10.Pruett, Catherine (1987). Aboriginal Occupation in Sand Canyon. Master's Thesis, California State University, Bakersfield.The best (even if it is the only) overview of the archaeological record of the Sand Canyon area.Ptomey, Kathy (1991). Archaeological Investigations at CA-Ker-2357, Sand Canyon, California. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 27(1):39-74.Siefkin, Susan, and Mark Q. Sutton (1995). An Isolated Cremation from Sand Canyon, Tehachapi, California. Kern County Archaeological Society Journal No. 6:41-51.Sutton, Mark Q. (1981) Bighorn Sheep Rock Art from the Southern Sierra Nevada. The Masterkey 55(1):13-17.Sutton, Mark Q. (1982). Kawaiisu Mythology and Rock Art: One Example. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 4(1):148-154.Sutton, Mark Q. (1995). The Archaeology of Teddy Bear Cave (CA-KER-508): A Preliminary Report.Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Society for California Archaeology, Eureka.Sutton, Mark Q. (1997). A Brief Introduction to the Archaeology of Nettle Spring. Tomo-Kahni News 4(4):4-5.Vane, Sylvia Brakke and Bean, Lowell John (1990). California Indians: Primary Resources - A Guide to Manuscripts, Artifacts, Documents, Serials, Music and Illustrations. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.The title says it all! THE guide to everything you ever wanted to know about California's native peoples. See section on Kern County for information about Kawaiisu informational resources. This book is also a guide to the museums of California with information on native peoples.Weidler, John (1981). Field Notes from CA-KER-508.Notes on file at Mission College, San Fernando, California.Wilke, Philip J. and Lawton, Harry W., editors (1976). The Expedition of Captain J. W. Davidson from Fort Tejon to the Owens Valley in 1859. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.Captain Davidson tells in his own words (with annotations by the editors) of the first officially organized United States Government expedition to the Owen Valley. The expedition crossed the western edge of Kawaiisu territory on its way north and passed directly through the Tehachapi Valley on its southerly return trip. Simple prose, but fascinating reading nonetheless.Zigmond, Maurice, Booth, Curtis & Munro, Pamela (1990-91). Kawaiisu: A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts. University of California Publications in Linguistics, Volume 119. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Although quite dry (it is written for the specialist), this book contains an abundance of information on the Kawaiisu. Zigmond, Maurice (1986). Kawaiisu. Article in Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11, Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.The definitive basic article on the history and culture of the Kawaiisu.Zigmond, Maurice (1981). Kawaiisu Ethnobotany. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press.Excellent source of information on native uses of plant materials, including food, medicine, construction materials, etc. Also gives one an insight into Kawaiisu environmental concepts.Zigmond, Maurice (1980). Kawaiisu Mythology - An Oral Tradition of South Central California.Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.Excellent informational source for Kawaiisu religious and moral teachings, as told in the form of “mythological” stories. Really interesting and highly recommended.Zigmond, Maurice (1978). Kawaiisu Basketry. Journal of California Anthropology, Volume 5, No. 2, pp. 199-215.Available from Coyote Press. Do a keyword search to find it on their website.Zigmond, Maurice (1977). The Supernatural World of the Kawaiisu, in Flowers on the Wind - Papers on Ritual, Myth, and Symbolism in California and the Southwest, Thomas Blackburn, editor. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.The first paper published on Kawaiisu religion, myth, etc. Interesting observations on the importance of the Sand Canyon area. Much particular information not seen in Kawaiisu Mythology.Zigmond, Maurice (1938). Kawaiisu Territory. American Anthropologist, Volume 40, pp. 634-638.Brief article describing area of Kawaiisu territory during ethno-historic period.

Publishers who specialize in books and/or articles on California's Native Americans include:

Ballena Press, 1259 El Camino Real, Suite 210, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Coyote Press, PO Box 3377, Salinas, CA 93912
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology (Bi-annual) Department of Sociology and Anthropology, California State University 9001 Stockdale Highway, Bakersfield, CA 93311
News From Native California (quarterly) PO Box 9145, Berkeley, CA 94709


Other Sites With Tomo-Kahni State Park Information:

  • Home Page for

California State Parks

  • or direct to their

Tomo-Kahni State Historic Park

  • Page.

Tehachapi Heritage League / Tehachapi Museum

Kern County Resources:

  • For more details on Kawaiisu history and culture, check out Larry Vredenburgh's

History of Tehachapi

  • page.

California State University - Bakersfield Department of Anthropology home page includes the Center for Archaeological Research and the Museum of Anthropology and Repository.

California State University - Bakersfield FACT (Facility for Animal Care and Treatment) has good photos and information on native plants and wildlife.

Museums Featuring Native American Cultures:

  • The Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of the American Indian

  • . Also, an extensive collection of links to

Native American history and culture

  • sites hosted by the Smithsonian Institution museums and organizations.

Located on the grounds of Sutter's Fort in downtown Sacramento, California Indian Museum and Cultural Center features Native American structures built in an outdoor demonstration area, as well as exhibits and artifacts illustrating the native cultures of California.

Collections of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles represent Native American cultures from Alaska to South America. The museum contains some of the finest examples of Indian art and artifacts in the United States.

The Autry Museum of Western Heritage in Los Angeles has one of the most comprehensive collections of western history and art.

Maturango Museum in Ridgecrest, California is dedicated to the cultural and natural history of the upper Mojave Desert.

The Antelope Valley Indian Museum in Lancaster, California emphasizes Southwestern, California and Great Basin Indians.

Located on the Morongo Indian Reservation in Banning, California, the Malki Museum collects, displays, and explains the art and artifacts of the Indians of the San Gorgonio Pass. It publishes works on past and present California Indian cultures.

Research Links for Students

  • Take a tour of

Owens Valley Prehistory

  • , including ethnography, archaeology, and paleoenvironment. Much information about the Owens Valley Paiute.

Indian Grinding Rock State Historical Park is located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Stockton and Sacramento, California. This website covers the cultural history of the Miwok Indians, the gold rush, and area ranching. The natural history of the area is also discussed, including oak grasslands, fire ecology, animals, wildflowers and weather.

A guide to rock art sites on BLM lands in California. This guide will lead you to 24 rock art sites created by our Native American forebears, stretching from the Mexican border to Oregon and Nevada.

Rock Art of the Southwest is a meta-list of links on the Web related to Native American rock art of the American Southwest. Here you will find over 1000 web links, grouped by state and location, with short web site descriptions.

Native American history and culture links and information at Native American Pages and Sites by Pete.