Yukian includes only two languages, Wappo and Yuki. The Yuki held the upper Eel River county and a bit of ocean frontage in the North Coast Ranges. The Wappo homeland extended from upper Napa Valley, through the hills near Mount St. Helena to the Russian River. There was also a small  Wappo enclave (Lile’ek) on the border of Clear Lake. Research indicates that they may have entered the state separately (3,000 years ago) or that an older Yukian presence was broken up by Pomoan spread.   (Moratto, California Archaeology *)


Native Location:  Bordered by The Geysers in Northern California, down to the bay south of Napa, Geyserville on the west, and Santa Rosa on the east

Language: Wappo

Identified Shelters: dome-shaped structures thatched with small branches and leaves; winter structures were made of branches and mud

Cultural Notes  The culture was decimated in 1838 by a smallpox epidemic. A smaller band of Wappo, called Lilik, were absorbed into the Pomo culture through intermarriage

Tribal History:   www.fourdir.com/wappo.htm


Native Location:  Round Valley, along the South Fork of the Eel River, and at the coast along the Ten Mile River

Language:  Yukian

Identified Shelters:  Conical houses of bark slabs with poles for support, and a 1-foot excavation inside

Food:  Fish, deer, grasshoppers, bird eggs,  acorns, tubers, berries

Trade:   With the Pomo, they traded furs, beads baskets and skins for tooth shells, clam disc beads, moccasins, sea shells, shell beads, dried abalone, mussels, seaweed, salt and magnesite beads;  With the Wintun, they traded black bear skins for salt and obsidian

Cultural Notes:  They were once sedentary, hunter-gatherers.

Tribal History:   www.fourdir.com/yuki.htm

* Moratto, Michael, California Archaeology, Academic Press, Inc., 1984