Spanish and Mexican Heritage Sites
The following are historic properties located in California State Park System units that are related to the Spanish Colonial and Mexican Republic eras of California history, or have other associations that may be of interest to people concerned with the Hispanic/Mexican heritage of California. At present, we are simply providing a list of these properties, in alphabetical order by park unit name.
State park unit classifications are abbreviated as follows in the listings:
SB = State Beach
SHP = State Historic Park
SP = State Park
SR = State Reserve
SRA = State Recreation Area
SVRA = State Vehicular Recreation Area
Andrew Molera SP Rancho El Sur
J.B.R. Cooper, a Yankee married to Encarnacion Vallejo, played a major role in pre-statehood California political, social, and commercial affairs. The cabin on his Mexican-era rancho El Sur was central to the early day occupation of the rancho.
Ano Nuevo SR Mission Santa Cruz Rancho Site
Mission Santa Cruz built a rancho outpost here with a corral and threshing floor. This rancho located at the northern most extent of the Mission's influence. Trusted Native American neophytes occupied the rancho tending the herds and crops.
Anza-Borrego Desert SP Fages/DeAnza Trail
Colonel Pedro Fages crossed the Colorado Desert in 1772, ultimately reaching the San Joaquin Valley and Mission San Luis Obispo. This route was later used by Anza's colonizing expedition of 1775, and is also known as the Old Emigrant Trail.
Atascadero SB Moro y Cayucos Rancho
Beach of Moro y Cayucos Rancho, granted to Martin Olivera and Vicente Feliz in 1842.
Auburn SRA Fandango House Cellar
Name, location suggests Spanish/Mexican historic associations with gold mining, but more research is needed to verify this assumption.
Bean Hollow SB Arroyo de Los Frijoles
This beach, originally known as Arroyo de Los Frijoles, marked the southern extent of Rancho Butano, which was granted in 1838 to Ramona Sanchez and patented to Manuel Rodriguez in 1866.
Big Basin Redwoods SP Canada de la Salud
Portola's land exploration of 1769 to settle the Monterey Bay area named the Waddell Creek valley "Canada de la Salud." Costanso, engineer for the party, noted that Ano Nuevo was near their campsite.
Big Basin Redwoods SP Fremonts' Campsite
Fremont and his men camped in Big Basin during his marauding on behalf of the US government in the Mexican War. A tree in the park was named for him.
Bodie SHP Gold Mining
Portions of one adobe building and remains of several stone "arrastras" (gold milling devices) at this famous gold mining ghost town suggest Spanish/Mexican influence, although historic associations with these features have not been researched.
Border Field SP US/Mexico Boundary
This is the western-most point of the US/Mexican border. The border was defined by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War in 1848. Prior to the war, the border divided the Mexican provinces of Alta and Baja California.
Carlsbad SB La Playa del Rancho Agua Hedionada
This section of coast was part of Rancho Agua Hedionada, which included 13,311 acres granted to Juan Mana Marron in 1842. There was apparently an adobe building associated with this rancho within park boundaries.
Carnegie SVRA Corral Hollow; El Arroyo de Los Buenos Aires
"El Arroyo de Los Buenos Aires" (now Corral Hollow) was traversed by an old Spanish trail, "El Camino Veijo," which was used by the Anza expedition in 1776. Later in the Mexican Republic era, it was used by vaqueros driving cattle.
Carpenteria SB Tarpit
This may have been a source of tar for "brea" roofs of early adobes. Friar Crespi, with the Portola Expedition, named it San Roque, but noted that the soldiers called it "Carpenteria" because Indians seen building a wooden canoe used the tar to caulk it.
Columbia SHP Tamale House
Apparently this was a Mexican restaurant in gold mining town of Columbia in Sierra foothills (more research needed to establish historic context).
Corona del Mar SB La Playa del Rancho San Joaquin
This beach was part of Rancho San Joaquin, granted to Jose Sepulveda in 1842.
Crystal Cove SP Rancho Niguel
This area appears to be part of Rancho Niguel, granted to Juan Avila and others in 1842; the grant included 13,316 acres.
Cuyamaca Rancho SP Cuyamaco Rancho Lands
Explorer Fages passed through this area in 1782, on his way to San Gabriel Mission. During the Mexican Republic era, it was part of the rancho that Don Augustin Olvera obtained in 1845.
Dockweiler SB Rancho La Ballona
This was the beach (playa) of Rancho La Ballona, granted to Machador Talamantes in 1839. It was also known as Paso de Las Carretas, and included 13,920 acres.
Doheny SB Rancho Niguel
This beach may be part of Rancho Niguel, which included 13,316 granted Juan Avila and others in 1842. Apparently there was an adobe building associated with this rancho in the park.
El Presidio de Santa Barbara SHP El Presidio de Santa Barbara
This is the site of the Spanish Presidio of Santa Barbara, now being reconstructed. Established in 1782, it was the last of four Spanish colonial military bases in Alta California. Surviving buildings include El Quartel and the Canedo Adobe
Emma Wood SB Ranch San Miguel/Mission Buenaventura
These beaches on the Ventura Coast may have been used by residents of Mission Buenaventura or Ranch San Miguel.
Forest of Nisene Marks SP El Bosque (Forest) del Rancho Soquel Augmentation
This park includes a small part of Rancho Aptos, 6,686 acres that were granted to Rafael Castro in 1833. Most is part of Rancho Soquel Augmentation, which was granted to Rafael Castro's sister, Martina Castro Lodge.
Fort Ross SHP Fort Ross
Fort Ross was settled by Russians from Alaska in 1812. The Russian presence in Alaska was a key factor encouraging the Spanish to colonize Alta California in 1769. There was much commercial and social interaction between the Russians and Mexicans.
Fort Tejon SHP Fort Tejon
Athough established by US military, the buildings of Fort Tejon (1854-1864) are constructed of adobe, a traditional Hispanic construction method. Acting Spanish Governor Fages first went through the Tejon
Gaviota SP Las Cruces Adobe
This was a residence of Miguel Cordero family members, probably constructed in the 1850s or earlier. Cordero was the former majordomo of La Purisima Mission, and grantee of Rancho Las Cruces. The adobe was later used as a stage stop/inn.
Gazos Creek Angling Access Portola Expedition Campsite
Portola's expedition camped near the mouth of Gazos Creek on October 23, 1769. The objective of the expedition was to relocate the harbor of Monterey, which had been observed and described by Viscaino during an earlier expedition in 1602.
Gray Whale Cove SB El Corral de Terra Rancho
This property may be part of El Corral de Terra Rancho north of Montara. The rancho of 7,766 acres was granted to Francisco Guerrero y Palomares in 1839.
Half Moon Bay SB Portola Expedition Camp
The Portola Expedition camped near Pilarcitos Creek on Oct. 28 and 29, 1769. Portola was sick at the time.
Henry Coe SP Canada de San Felipe Ranch
Part of this park was formerly Charles Weber's Canada de San Felipe Ranch.
John Marsh Home John Marsh Home
This 1850s building is located on property that was part of Rancho Los Medanos, granted to Jose Noriega in 1835 and sold to John Marsh in 1837. Marsh, a "doctor" who became a naturalized Mexican citizen in 1844, was murdered by 3 Californios in 1856.
La Purisima Mission SHP La Purisima Mission (second site)
La Purisima Mission was moved to this location after the devastating earthquake of 1812 destroyed the original establishment. One building survived into the 20th century, and the complex was largely reconstructed by the CCC during the 1930s.
Lake del Valle SRA Del Valle Family?
Del Valle is an early Californio family name. More research is needed to establish origin of park's name and to determine if it has associations with the Del Valle family.
Las Tunas SB San Vicente y Santa Monica Concession
Park name refers to "tunas," the fruit of the nopal cactus. Property was part of Spanish-era San Vicente y Santa Monica concession, and may be part of Boca de Santa Monica, 6,657 acres that were granted to Isidro Reyes in 1839.
Leo Carrillo SB Leo Carrillo (movie star)
Beach is named for Mexican-American movie star, Leo Carrillo. His grandparents Josefa Bandini and Pedro Carrillo were members of prominent families from Old Town San Diego. He is commemorated at the Carrillo Ranch, owned by the City of Carlsbad.
Los Encinos SHP De La Osa Adobe; Rancho Los Encinos
This park was the center of Rancho Los Encinos. It features the Mexican era adobe home of the De La Osa family, built ca.1849 by Don Vicente de Osa. The Portola expedition reportedly camped at the warm springs here on Aug. 5, 1769.
Los Osos Oaks SR Canado de los Osos
Canada de los Osos, at the lower end of Los Osos Creek, was named by Portola's men in September 1769. In the Mexican era, the canada was part of Rancho Canada de los Osos y Peche y Islay.
Malibu Creek SP Sepulveda Adobe
Adobe home of a member of the Sepulveda family who made part of his living making charcoal. Charcoal was a traditional form of fuel in Mexico; Sepulveda sold his product in El Pueblo de los Angeles.
Mandalay SB La Playa del Rancho Rio de Santa Clara
This beach appears be part of Rancho Rio de Santa Clara, which consisted of 44,883 acres granted to Valentine Cota in 1837.
Manhattan SB La Playa del Rancho Sausal Redondo
Appears to be beach of Rancho Sausal Redondo, granted to Antonio Ignacio Avila in 1822, 1837, and 1849 (22,459 acres).
Manresa SB La Playa del Rancho San Andres
Part of Rancho San Andres, which was granted to Jose Joaquin Castro by Governor Arguello in 1833. This was also a Mexican era embarcadero (port) for shipping lumber.
McGrath SB La Playa
This property appears to have been part of either Rancho El Rio de Santa Clara (granted to Valentine Cota in 1837) or Rancho San Miguel (granted to Olivas and Lorenzana, date unknown).
Montana de Oro SP Rancho Canada de los Osos
Appears to be part of Rancho Canada de los Osos, which was granted to Victor Linares in 1842, 1843, and 1845.
Montara SB Portola Expedition Campsite; El Rincon de las Almejas
The Portola Expedition camped here in October 30,1769, on its journey to relocate Monterey Bay.
Monterey SB La Playa del Pueblo de Monterey
This was the public beach of the Pueblo of Monterey, the capital of Spanish and Mexican Alta California. It was the site of much commercial and political activity; all landings were made at the beach, as the pueblo had no wharf.
Monterey SHP Alvarado Adobe
Governor Alvarado owned this adobe home. It was occupied by his mistress, Raimunda Castillo, who bore several of his children before she married Mariano de Jesus Soberanes and moved to Rancho Los Ojitos in South Monterey County.
Monterey SHP Boston Store; Casa del Oro
This adobe building was built on land owned by Thomas Larkin in the 1840's, undoubtedly using Native American labor. It was used as a store by Joseph Boston in the 1850's.
Monterey SHP Casa Gutierrez
Two adjoining adobe buildings are believed to have been built by Nicolas Gutierrez, who served as governor of Alta California in 1836.
Monterey SHP Casa Soberanes
This adobe residence was built by Rafael Estrada in the 1840s, and was later occupied by the Soberanes and Serrano families.
Monterey SHP Cooper-Molera Adobe
The oldest part of this adobe may have been built by the Vallejo family in the 1820s. J.B.R. Cooper, Yankee ship captain, married Encarnacion Vallejo, acquired the property, and played a significant role in pre-statehood political and business affairs.
Monterey SHP Customs House
This is purportedly the oldest public building in California; portions were built as early as 1814. It was here in 1846 that Commodore Sloat officially took possession of Alta California for the United States as part of the spoils of the Mexican War.
Monterey SHP Diaz Adobe
This portion of the Cooper-Molera complex was built in the 1830s and sold to Manuel Diaz in the 1840s. Diaz was a prominent Mexican merchant and alcalde (mayor) of Monterey at the time of the American takeover in 1846. He was bankrupt by 1855.
Monterey SHP Larkin House
Thomas Larkin (later US Consul to California) had this house built in 1834. It is often cited as reflecting major Yankee influences on traditional Mexican architecture, but new studies suggest many similar early buildings exist throughout Latin America.
Monterey SHP Pacific House
This traditional Californio adobe was built in 1835 for Thomas O. Larkin, probably by Hispanic and Indian labor. It was intended for use as a hotel, and was later sold to Jas. McKende and David Jacks.
Monterey SHP Stevenson House
Portions of this building are of traditional adobe construction; the rear section was the residence of Rafael Gonzales, an official during the Mexican Republic era. It was renamed for Robert Louis Stevenson, who stayed there briefly in 1879.
Monterey SHP Swan Adobe; California's First (American) Theatre
This traditional adobe, owned by Jack Swan, was originally built as a boardinghouse and saloon in 1843, probably by Hispanic and Indian labor. It was later used by Stevenson's Regiment during the Mexican War for theatrical productions.
Monterey SHP Viscaino-Serra Landing Place
This site commemorates discovery of Monterey Bay by Viscaino in 1602, the landing of missionary Junipero Serra in 1770, and founding of Mission San Carlos (Carmel) and the Presidio of Monterey at what became the Spanish capital of Alta California.
Monterey SHP Whaling Station
Constructed in 1855, this building was used as a boarding house for Portuguese whalers. While its primary historical associations are not Spanish or Mexican, it attests to the longevity of the older building traditions well into the American period.
Morro Bay SP Portola Expedition Campsite
Portola expedition camped in the valley of Morro Creek September 8, 1769.
Moss Landing SB Rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo
This appears to be the beach of the Mexican rancho Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo, granted to Francisco Soto in 1829 and 1836.
Mount Diablo SP Mount Diablo
The name "Monte del Diablo" first appeared on a map of the Mission San Jose ca. 1824, although the mountain apparently had earlier Spanish names. The name appears again in the Monte del Diablo land grant petitioned by Salvio Pacheco in 1827.
Mount San Jacinto SP Mount San Jacinto
May be in the San Jacinto Viejo-Estudillo Rancho, although there are a number of ranchos with San Jacinto in their names. Further study is needed to resolve relationship of park land to early ranchos.
Natural Bridges SB La Playa de la Mission Santa Cruz
This property was not part of a known Spanish/Mexican rancho, but was near Mission Santa Cruz. The beach may have been used for shipping access, or by Native American neophytes who continued traditional gathering activities while living in the mission.
Old Town San Diego SHP Casa de Cota (site)
Site of the adobe residence of Juan or Ramon Cota, built ca. 1835 in the Mexican Period. The site is now a parking lot.
Old Town San Diego SHP Casa de Juan Bandini
Adobe residence of Juan Bandini, prominent Californio merchant from Peru. The original house was built ca. 1827, with the 2nd floor (wood) added in the American era. The building was heavily remodeled in the 20th century, and is now used as a restaurant.
Old Town San Diego SHP Casa de Juana Machado y Silvas
Adobe residence of Jose Nicasio Silvas and Maria Antonia Machado, built between 1830 and 1843. The building is now used for park interpretation.
Old Town San Diego SHP Casa de Machado-Stewart
Adobe residence built by Jose Manuel Machado in 1830s for his daughter, who married John C. Steward, an American. The building is now used for park interpretation.
Old Town San Diego SHP Casa Estudillo
Adobe residence of Captain Jose Maria de Estudillo (presidio commandant), built ca.1827. Restored about 1910 by architect Hazel Waterman, this building was influential in increasing popularity of Mission Revival architecture and the "Ramona" legend.
Old Town San Diego SHP Old Town San Diego
Settlement that developed on the terrace below Presidio de San Diego after ca. 1821. While a few Mexican-Republic era buildings survive (listed separately), many others are reconstructed or present only as archeological remains beneath modern features.
Old Town San Diego SHP Pedrorena Adobe
This adobe was constructed in 1869 for Miguel de Pedrorena, attorney whose father was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1849. Although it has earthen walls, in design terms it was a Greek Revival cottage, not a traditional vernacular adobe.
Old Town San Diego SHP Plaza de Pueblo San Diego Viejo
The plaza was the center of the pueblo in 1846, when the American flag was raised there during the Mexican War. Prior to ca. 1835, the layout of the pueblo was probably more informal, with buildings oriented to the nearby river rather than the plaza.
Old Town San Diego SHP Silvas-McCoy Property
Maria E. Silvas owned 3 adobe buildings here prior to 1851. Plans to reconstruct the later McCoy House rather than older adobes recently caused a public controversy regarding treatment of Mexican Republic era interpretation and resources at the park.
Old Town San Diego SHP Wrightington Adobe
> Home of Thomas and Juana Machado Wrightington, reportedly built ca. 1830 by Juana's first husband, Damasio Alipas. Building has been reconstructed based on extensive archeological work, and is now used as a retail concession.
Olompali SHP Camilo Ynitia Adobe
Ruins of an adobe built ca. 1837 stand in the burned ruins of a later mansion. It belonged to Miwok leader Camilo Ynitia, who traded with Russians and Mexicans, and received a Mexican land grant. A skirmish took place here during the Bear Flag Revolt.
Oxnard SB La Playa del Rancho Rio de Santa Clara
Beach of Rancho Rio de Santa Clara, granted to Valentine Cota in 1837 (44,883 acres).
Pacifica SB La Playa del Rancho San Pedro
Beach of Mexican period Rancho San Pedro, granted to Francisco Sanchez in 1839. This was also the site of a rancho outpost of Mission Dolores, where a large number of Native American neophytes lived and worked as farmers.
Pescadero SB La Playa del Rancho Pescadero
Beach of Mexican era Rancho Pescadero, granted to Juan Gonzales, former majordomo of Mission Santa Cruz, in 1833.
Petaluma Adobe SHP Petaluma Adobe
This was the headquarters (hacienda) of M. G. Vallejo's Rancho Petaluma (granted 1842), and was probably the largest such complex in the state. Hundreds of Indians live there after secularization, working at trades they had learned in the missions.
Picacho SRA Picacho Peak
Padre Font saw this peak and called it "La Campana" on Dec. 4, 1775. Friar Garces called it "Penon de la Campana." Gold was discovered there by an Indian in 1860, and Mexican miners prospected there in 1862.
Pigeon Point Light Station Pigeon Point
Spanish name for the Point was "Punta de las Ballnas, " but it was also referred to as Punta Falsa de Ano Nuevo on a map of 1785. It was part of Rancho Punta de Ano Nuevo.
Pio Pico SHP Pio Pico Mansion
Adobe rancho residence of Pio Pico, referred to by the last Mexican governor as "El Ranchito". He built the house in 1852 and lived there until 1892, when he lost the property to foreclosure. The actual name of the 8,891 acre rancho was Paso de Bartolo.
Pismo Dunes SVRA La Playa del Rancho Pismo
Beach at Rancho Pismo, granted to Jose Ortega in 1840.
Pismo SB La Playa del Rancho Pismo
Beach of Mexican Rancho Pismo, granted Nov. 18, 1840 to Jose Ortega. According to Fages, "Pismo" was the Indian word for tar or brea.
Placerita Canyon SP Gold Discovery Site
Site of Francisco Lopez' discovery of gold while gathering onions in the mountains near Mission San Fernando in 1842. It created a short-lived local prospecting boom, and yielded the first California gold sent to the US mint.
Point Dume SB Point Dume
Point was named by Vancouver on November 24, 1793, after Fr. Francisco Dumetz of San Buenaventura Mission. It was a navigational landmark of long standing. Point Lobos SR Point Lobos
This was part of Rancho San Jose y Sur Chiquito, granted to Marcelino Escobar in 1839. No Mexican Republic era buildings survive, although there may be archaeological remains of mission or rancho period tanning vats or other structures.
Point Montara Light Station Point Montara
Part of Rancho El Corral de Terra, formerly El Pilar or Los Pilares. It was a horse and oxen ranch of Mission Dolores as early as 1790's. It was later granted to Francisco Guerrero y Palomares.
Point Sal SB Point Sal
Point Sal was part of Rancho Guadalupe, granted to Diego Olivera and Teodoro Arellanes in 1840 (43,682 acres).
Point Sur SHP Point Sur
Point of Rancho El Sur, sold to J.B.R. Cooper during the Mexican era. It was originally granted to Juan Bautista Alvarado, who later served as governor of Alta California, in 1834.
Pomponio SB Pomponio Creek
The creek and park were named for former mission Indian Chief Pomponio. He was a famed rebel against the mission system who hid out in this vicinity and was captured in 1824.
Pomponio SB Pomponio Creek
The creek and park were named for former mission Indian Chief Pomponio. He was a famed rebel against the mission system who hid out in this vicinity and was captured in 1824.
Portola SP Gaspar de Portola
Named for Gaspar de Portola, Governor of Baja California who was sent to Alta California in 1769 to rediscover and occupy the Port of Monterey, thereby creating a bastion against threatening encroachment on Nueva Espana by Russians and British.
Redondo SB Old Salt Lake (salt source)
This beach is located at the boundary between Rancho San Pedro and Rancho Sausal Redondo. Old Salt Lake at the north end of the beach is a prehistoric and historic salt source.
Refugio SB Embarcadero del Rancho El Refugio
The embarcadero (landing) at Rancho El Refugio was occupied by Jose Francisco Ortega as early as 1794. It was the site of smuggling while trade was restricted in the early 19th century. The pirate Bouchard landed there in 1818 and burned Ortega's adobe.
Rincon Point Rincon Point
Portola camped at Rincon Point on August 16, 1769 at an Indian village near the creek before going on to Carpenteria. Cabrillo anchored off this point in October 1542.
Royal Palms SB La Playa del rancho Palos Verdes
This beach was part of the 31,629 acre Palos Verdes Rancho, granted to Jose L. Sepulveda in 1827 and 1846. It was formerly part of the Spanish land concession of San Pedro to Dominguez in 1784.
Salinas River SB La Playa del Rancho El Rincon de las Salinas
Rancho El Rincon de las Salinas was granted to a Native American woman, Christine Delgado, in 1833 and later confirmed to Rafael Estrada. It was a profitable source of salt used in the Spanish and Mexican eras for livestock.
San Buenaventura SB La Playa
Southern portion appears to be the beach of Rancho San Miguel (4,694 acres granted to Olivas and Lorenzana in the Mexican era). This portion was also known as Los Cerritos. The northern part may be the mission beach.
San Clemente SB Boca de la Playa Beach
Beach of Boca de la Playa Rancho, which was granted to Emigidio Vejar in 1846. Apparently there was an adobe building associated with this property.
San Elijo SB San Elijo Lagoon
Portola passed San Elijo Lagoon on July 16 or 17, 1769, on his way north to relocate Monterey Bay.
San Gregorio SB La Playa del Rancho San Gregorio
The Native American village on San Gregorio Creek was the Portola Expedition campsite from October 24 to 26, 1769. Rancho San Gregorio was granted to Antonio Buelna in 1839.
San Gregorio SB Portola Expedition Campsite
Portola expedition camped near the creek at San Gregorio on Oct. 26 and 27, 1769. Fr. Crespi proposed it for a mission site because of the large number of Native Americans there.
San Juan Bautista SHP Castro-Breen Adobe
Home of interim military commandant Jose Castro during the 1846 Fremont stand at Hawk (Fremont) Peak in the nearby Gabilan Mountains. It is possible that some portions of the structure were originally mission buildings.
San Juan Bautista SHP Plaza
San Juan Bautista Mission Plaza is central to the mission complex and the town that later grew up there. It has buildings around three sides, with the fourth side open to the adjacent valley.
San Juan Bautista SHP Plaza Hotel
Much of the lower story of this building was part of the mission quartel, quarters built in the early 19th century for Spanish soldiers assigned to the mission. A second floor was added and the building converted to a hotel during the American period.
San Juan Bautista SHP Plaza Stable
This was probably the site of the Ursua family facing the San Juan Bautista Mission plaza. The stable was later erected by Zanetta, who had another adobe residence nearby.
San Juan Bautista SHP Zanetta House; Plaza Hall
This building was built from materials and is on the site of the San Juan Bautista Mission convento, where young Indian women and widows were housed during the mission era.
San Luis Reservoir SRA Rancho San Luis Gonzaga
This is the site of Rancho San Luis Gonzaga, granted to Juan Perez Pacheco y Jose Maria Mejia in 1843.
San Onofre SB La playa del Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores; San Onofre, village
Portola camped at an Indian village north of San Onofre on July 22, 1769 on his way north to Monterey Bay. This area was part of Rancho Santa margarita y Las Flores, which was granted to Pio Andres Pico in 1841. The grant consisted of 133,441 acres.
San Pasqual Battlefield SHP San Pasqual Battlefield
Site of December 6, 1846 Mexican War battle between US forces under General Kearny and Californios under General Andres Pico. The later won the battle, killing 22 Americans. Apparently there was an adobe building associated with this site.
San Simeon SB Rancho Piedra Blanca
Rancho Piedra Blanca (48,806 acres) was granted Jose de Jesus Pico in 1840. He was a former Monterey soldier, was Administrator of San Miguel Mission, and played a role in 1845 Treaty of Cahuenga. There were several adobe buildings on the property.
Santa Cruz Mission SHP Santa Cruz Mission Adobe
Part of a row house for Native American neophytes, built 1822-24. This restored building is the best preserved Native American residence at any of the Alta California missions. It was later occupied by Roman Rodriguez and Felipe Armas families.
Santa Monica SB Rancho La Ballona
Scouts with the Portola expedition visited here August 4, 1769. It was probably later part of Rancho La Ballona, granted to Machado and Talanantes in 1839.
Santa Susana Mountains De la Ossa Stage Way Station
The family of Vincente de la Ossa owned and lived at what is now Los Encinos SHP. Their home may have been a wayside station for stages in the late 1850's. In 1861 (or 1867), probably after Vincente's death, the family moved to present day Chatsworth.
Seacliff SB La Playa del Rancho Aptos
This was the beach of Ranch Aptos. Rafael Castro received Rancho Aptos in 1833.
Seccombe Lake SVRA Martin Adobe
Although built of adobe, this building was constructed by Mormons who immigrated here in the 1850s. The property was probably once part of the San Bernardino Rancho, which was granted to the Lugo brothers in 1842.
Silver Strand SB San Diego Bay
Beach on San Diego Bay. Spanish passed this area to enter the bay in 1769 to establish Alta California's first presidio and mission. May have been part of Rancho de la Nacion, granted to John Forster in 1845 (26,632) acres.
Sonoma Coast SB Rancho Bodega
Park appears to be part of Rancho Bodega, originally granted to Victor Prudon in 1841 and later re-granted to Stephen Smith in 1844 (35,487 acres). Rancho Bodega's northern limit was the Russian River.
Sonoma SHP Blue Wing Inn (Sonoma House)
Two-story adobe building used as a hotel called the "Sonoma House." Seems to represent 1840s-1850s expansion of an earlier mission mayordomo's house. It was owned by Englishmen Jas. Cooper and Thomas Spriggs in the Gold Rush era.
Sonoma SHP Sonoma Barracks
Adobe building erected ca. 1837 by Mariano G. Vallejo, Mexican general of Alta California. It housed his troops, and was the occupied by Americans insurgents in the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt, just prior to American military takeover during the Mexican War.
Sonoma SHP Sonoma Mission (Archeological Site)
Only the priests' quarters survive from the original Mission San Francisco Solano (founded 1823). There are, however, extensive archeological remains of buildings and other structures that once formed the original mission settlement.
Sonoma SHP Sonoma Mission (Parish Church)
Adobe parish church dating from ca. 1840, believed built by Mariano G. Vallejo on the site of the first mission church. It was restored/reconstructed during the 20th century. The main mission church, which collapsed in 18__, was located to the east.
Sonoma SHP Sonoma Mission (Priests' Quarters)
This is a portion of the priests' quarters of Sonoma Mission (Mission San Francisco Solano), built ca. 1825 and restored in the 1940s. The original mission church was at the west end of this building, with the 2nd larger church to the east.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Casa Grande (Archeological Site)
Gen. M.G. Vallejo built a large 2-story adobe home on the plaza after he took control of Sonoma in the 1830s. After the Mexican War, he moved to his estate on the edge of town. Casa Grande was used as a girls' school after 1854, and burned in 1867.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Casa Grande (Servants' Quarters)
Long, narrow 2-story adobe building said to have been the kitchen and servants quarters at Vallejo's Casa Grande in downtown Sonoma. This is the only surviving building of the complex, which originally included extensive courtyard walls and outbuildings.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Estate
M. G. Vallejo moved from his Casa Grande to this estate on the edge of Sonoma in the early 1850s. He named it "Lachryma Montis" (weeping mountain) after a spring on the property. It was part of Rancho Agua Caliente, granted to Lazaro Pina in 1840.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Estate (El Delirio)
El Delirio is a small, ornate wooden building in the garden next to the main Vallejo home. It is decorated in the same Gothic Revival style as the main house, and served as a retreat for the Vallejo family members and guests.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Estate (Napoleon's Cottage)
M.G. Vallejo built this small, simple cottage on the grounds of Lachryma Montis in 1865 for his youngest son, Napoleon, who moved into his new quarters at the age of 15.
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Estate (Swiss Chalet)
Half-timbered building of fired brick and wood on the grounds of the Vallejo estate. The timbers were reportedly cut and numbered in Europe and shipped to California, where the building was erected in 1852 for use as a warehouse (almacen).
Sonoma SHP Vallejo's Estate (Vallejo Residence)
After the Mexican War, M.G. Vallejo and his family lived in an ornate "Carpenter's Gothic" Victorian house, prefabricated in the eastern US, shipped around the Horn, and assembled in 1851-52. Adobe was placed inside the wood frame walls for insulation.
South Carlsbad SB La Playa del Rancho Agua Hedionda
Part of Rancho Agua Hedionda, granted to Juan Marron in 1842 (13,311 acres).
Sunset SB La Playa
May be part of Rancho Bolsa del Pajaro, granted Sebastian Rodriguez in 1837 (5,497 acres). One survey suggests beach was public and not included in the grant, however. Portola's men found a large stufffed bird (pajaro) in this vicinity in 1769.
Sutter's Fort SHP Sutter's Fort
Headquarters of John A. Sutter's 1841 New Helvetia settlement. The central building, completed in 1844 using Indian labor, is a traditional adobe. Sutter played a prominent role in the business and politics of Mexican California in the 1840s.
Tomales Bay SP Rancho Punta de los Reyes
Discovered by Spanish lieutenant Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Cuadro, commander of the schooner "Sonora," in 1775. He was greeted by Indians and exchanged gifts with them. It was probably later part of Rancho Punta de los Reyes.
Twin Lakes SB La Playa
This beach may have been part of grants to Miguel Villagrana or Francisco Rodriguez, although more research is needed.
Wilder Ranch SP Bolcoff Adobe
Adobe and rammed earth building, roofed with tiles taken from Santa Cruz Mission by mission administrator Jose Bolcoff ca. 1839. He may have used part of the building as a creamery or cool house. There was an earlier mission outpost here as well.
Will Rogers SHP Rancho Boca de Santa Monica
Appears to be part of the Rancho Boca de Santa Monica, granted to Isidro Reyes et al. in 1839 (6,657 acres). It was part of the Spanish era land concession of San Vicente y Santa Monica.
William B. Ide Adobe SHP Ide Adobe
The adobe building attributed to William B. Ide uses Hispanic style building materials.
William Randolph Hearst Memorial SB Rancho San Simeon
This beach was probably part of Rancho San Simeon, granted to Jose Ramon Estrada, son of Jose Mariano Estrada, in 1842 (4,469 acres).
Zmudowski SB Potrero de Moro Cojo
This beach may be part of Potrero de Moro Cojo grant.